Thursday, January 9, 2014

Isaiah Variants within the Book of Mormon

Some time ago, probably close to 2 years or more now, I decided to take a look at Isaiah passages quoted more than once in the Book of Mormon. I can’t say what had motivated me to this now that so much time has passed, but I suspect it had something to do with my noticing that 1 Nephi 21:25 and 2 Nephi 6:17 quoting Isaiah 49:25 rather differently. I postulated a theory as to why that was, but it remains just a nice idea at present. In any event, what I can say is that much more time has been spent studying the ways Isaiah in the Book of Mormon differs from Isaiah in the King James Version, while precious little (so far as I have been able determine) has been spent on seeing how Isaiah differs within the Book of Mormon (the Skousen paper mentioned below touches on the topic, but not significantly).

So, a couple years ago I decided to just line every instance throughout the Book of Mormon of the same verse up side-by-side, with the KJV on the far right. I used the list of such references compiled by Royal Skousen, “Textual Variants in the Isaiah Quotations in the Book of Mormon,” in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, ed. Donald W. Parry and John W. Welch (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 1998), 385-86. Having lined them-up, I haven’t done much else since then, but I thought maybe someone more motivated than I to study this issue might benefit if I made this effort publically available.  Bold in the Book of Mormon references are words not found in the KJV, while [brackets] are words not actually in the Book of Mormon verse but in the KJV.  Italics in the KJV are (I think) just the regular italicized words found in the standard LDS edition of the KJV. Many, lined up side-by-side, reveal little or no differences, but quite a few prove to considerably different from both the KJV and other appearances of the same verse within the Book of Mormon.

2 Nephi 21:4
2 Nephi 30:9
Isaiah 11:4
But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
And with righteousness shall the Lord God judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth. And he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth; and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.

2 Nephi 21:5
2 Nephi 30:11
Isaiah 11:5
And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

2 Nephi 21:6
2 Nephi 30:12
Isaiah 11:6
The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.
And then shall the wolf [also shall] dwell with the lamb; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling, together; and a little child shall lead them.
The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

2 Nephi 21:7
2 Nephi 30:13
Isaiah 11:7
And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

2 Nephi 21:8
3 Nephi 30:14
Isaiah 11:8
And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’s den.
And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’s den.
And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den.

2 Nephi 21:9
3 Nephi 30:15
Isaiah 11:9
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.

1 Nephi 21:22
2 Nephi 6:6
Isaiah 49:22
Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people; and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders.
And now, these are the words: Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people; and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders.
Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people: and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders.

1 Nephi 21:23
2 Nephi 6:7
Isaiah 49:23
And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers; they shall bow down to thee with their face towards the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord; for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.
And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers; they shall bow down to thee with their faces towards the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord; for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.
And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.

1 Nephi 21:24
2 Nephi 6:16
Isaiah 49:24
For shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captives delivered?
For shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered?
Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered?

1 Nephi 21:25
2 Nephi 6:17
Isaiah 49:25
But thus saith the Lord, even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered; for I will contend with him that contendeth with thee, and I will save thy children.
But thus saith the Lord: Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered; for the Mighty God shall deliver his covenant people. For thus saith the Lord: I will contend with them that contendeth with thee—[and I will save thy children]
But thus saith the Lord, Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered: for I will contend with him that contendeth with thee, and I will save thy children.

1 Nephi 21:26
2 Nephi 6:18
Isaiah 49:26
And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; [and] they shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine; and all flesh shall know that I, the Lord, am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
And I will feed them that oppress thee, with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine; and all flesh shall know that I the Lord am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood, as with sweet wine: and all flesh shall know that I the Lord am thy Saviour 
and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

2 Nephi 8:24
3 Nephi 20:36
Isaiah 52:1
Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.
And then shall be brought to pass that which is written: Awake, awake again, and put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city, for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.
Awake, awake; put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city: for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.

2 Nephi 8:25
3 Nephi 20:37
Isaiah 52:2
Shake thyself from the dust; arise, [and] sit down, O Jerusalem; loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.
Shake thyself from the dust; arise, [and] sit down, O Jerusalem; loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.
Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.

Mosiah 12:21
3 Nephi 20:40
Isaiah 52:7
How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings; that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good; that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth;
And then shall they say: How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings unto them, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings unto them of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion: Thy God reigneth!
How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!

Mosiah 12:22
Mosiah 15:29
3 Nephi 16:18
3 Nephi 20:32
Isaiah 52:8
Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing; for they shall see eye to eye when the Lord shall bring again Zion;
Yea, Lord,  thy watchmen shall lift up their voice; with the voice together shall they sing; for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion.
Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing, for they shall see eye to eye when the Lord shall bring again Zion.
Then shall their watchmen lift up their voice, and with the voice together shall they sing; for they shall see eye to eye.
Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing: for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion.

Mosiah 12:23
Mosiah 15:30
3 Nephi 16:19
3 Nephi 20:34
Isaiah 52:9
Break forth into joy; sing together ye waste places of Jerusalem; for the Lord hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem;
Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem; for the Lord hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem.
Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem; for the Lord hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem.
Then shall they break forth into joy—Sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem; for the Father hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem.
Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem: for the Lord hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem.

Mosiah 12:24
Mosiah 15:31
3 Nephi 16:20
3 Nephi 20:35
Isaiah 52:10
The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God?
The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.
The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of [our] God.
The Father hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of the Father; and the Father and I are one.
The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.

3 Nephi 20:45
3 Nephi 21:8
Isaiah 52:15
So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him, for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider.
And when that day shall come, it shall come to pass that kings shall shut their mouths[at him]; for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider.
So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider.


Mosiah 14:7
Mosiah 15:6
Isaiah 53:7
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb so he opened not his mouth.
And after all this, after working many mighty miracles among the children of men, he shall be led, yea, even as Isaiah said, as a sheep before the shearer[s] is dumb, so he opened[th] not his mouth.
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.

5 comments:

  1. Congratulations on the blog. I saw the title of your blog in a recent article in Interpreter and knew I had to say something. 'Studio et Quoque Fide' needs to be changed. It's the wrong use of 'Quoque.' It's true that one of the senses of 'quoque' is also, but it should not be used with 'et' in this way. Maybe 'Studio et Fide quidem,' or 'Et Studio et Fide'? I work with Latin texts professionally. When I saw reference to the title in a recent article in Interpreter, I wanted to let you know so that it would not undermine the good work you are doing. Best, rhj

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    1. Hello,

      Thanks for in-parting of your wisdom in regards to the name of my blog here. I had checked with my Latin instructors and another gentleman I know who is quite knowledgeable in Latin, and none of them raised this issue.

      I guess part of the problem I am having is that is want keep the translation of "by study and also by faith" as literal as possible. The alternatives you have proposed would be translated more literally as "by study and even by faith" (I am unaware of a sense of "also" for quidem... I am wrong?) and "both by study and by faith." Latin, if seems, does not usually combine words for "and also", so there maybe no way to avoid breaking the rules to keep it more literal. What about "etiam"? I considered that for a while, but opted against it in order to avoid the repetitious seeming "et etiam." Or perhaps just using "atque", which I understand as being a stonger form of "et" which can be rendered "and also," or "and even", etc. (In fact, is it et+que? If it is, I guess the most literal translation would be "and and" though I guess "and also" is more idiomatic for English.)

      In any event, I purchased the domain name, so I may not want to change it until that expires. Still, thank for your feedback and I would be interested in in your response to the above questions.

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    2. Of course, you could've learned Hebrew and saved yourself all this trouble by using a single conjunction (wâw) that pretty much covers all these issues. :-)

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  2. Hi Neal, I came across your blog as I was looking for information on Isaiah in the Book of Mormon. I have been looking at variations between the texts of the Book of Mormon and the Bible but I never thought about looking at variations between Isaiah quotes within the Book of Mormon. Over a year ago I was trying to find any websites out there that provided a side-by-side comparison of Isaiah in the Bible and in the Book of Mormon, but I was unable to find any, and the only sites that even offered a list of Isaiah passages that are quoted in the Book of Mormon were all anti-Mormon sites (usually with the accusation, "Look! Plagiarism!").

    So about a year ago I decided to start a blog where I did my own side-by-side comparison of Isaiah in the Book of Mormon. It's not quite complete yet but it is getting there. Like what you have done here I hope it can be useful for anyone who needs an online resource to do a side-by-side comparison of the texts.

    You can see what I have done so far at the link below.

    http://isaiahbom.blogspot.com/

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    1. Quantumleap42:

      Thanks for sharing that with me. I think having a side-by-side comparison can be very useful for study purposes. I'll be sharing your blog with others who may find it helpful.

      Thanks for commenting.

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